Name of the Franks A 19th century depiction of different Franks AD — The name Franci was not a tribal name, but within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original peoples who constituted it. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm the name of the Franks has been linked with the English adjective " frank ", originally meaning "free".
Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, — Religious beliefs in the Eastern Empire and Iran were in flux during the late sixth and early seventh centuries. Judaism was an active proselytising faith, and at least one Arab political leader converted to it.
All these strands came together with the emergence of Islam in Arabia during the lifetime of Muhammad d. The defeat of Muslim forces at the Battle of Tours in led to the reconquest of southern France by the Franks, but the main reason for the halt of Islamic growth in Europe was the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate and its replacement by the Abbasid Caliphate.
The Abbasids moved their capital to Baghdad and were more concerned with the Middle East than Europe, losing control of sections of the Muslim lands. Franks traded timber, furs, swords and slaves in return for silks and other fabrics, spices, and precious metals from the Arabs.
Medieval economic history The migrations and invasions of the 4th and 5th centuries disrupted trade networks around the Mediterranean. African goods stopped being imported into Europe, first disappearing from the interior and by the 7th century found only in a few cities such as Rome or Naples.
By the end of the 7th century, under the impact of the Muslim conquests, African products were no longer found in Western Europe. The replacement of goods from long-range trade with local products was a trend throughout the old Roman lands that happened in the Early Middle Ages.
This was especially marked in the lands that did not lie on the Mediterranean, such as northern Gaul or Britain. Non-local goods appearing in the archaeological record are usually luxury goods. In the northern parts of Europe, not only were the trade networks local, but the goods carried were simple, with little pottery or other complex products.
Around the Mediterranean, pottery remained prevalent and appears to have been traded over medium-range networks, not just produced locally.
Gold continued to be minted until the end of the 7th century, when it was replaced by silver coins.
The basic Frankish silver coin was the denarius or denierwhile the Anglo-Saxon version was called a penny. From these areas, the denier or penny spread throughout Europe during the centuries from to Copper or bronze coins were not struck, nor were gold except in Southern Europe.
No silver coins denominated in multiple units were minted. Christianity in the Middle Ages An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary Christianity was a major unifying factor between Eastern and Western Europe before the Arab conquests, but the conquest of North Africa sundered maritime connections between those areas.
Increasingly the Byzantine Church differed in language, practices, and liturgy from the Western Church. Theological and political differences emerged, and by the early and middle 8th century issues such as iconoclasmclerical marriageand state control of the Church had widened to the extent that the cultural and religious differences were greater than the similarities.
Many of the popes prior to were more concerned with Byzantine affairs and Eastern theological controversies. The register, or archived copies of the letters, of Pope Gregory the Great pope — survived, and of those more than letters, the vast majority were concerned with affairs in Italy or Constantinople.
The only part of Western Europe where the papacy had influence was Britain, where Gregory had sent the Gregorian mission in to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.
Under such monks as Columba d.Charlemagne (; 2 April // January ), also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. He united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.
On this day, Charlemagne, king of the Franks, died at the age of 72 in Aachen, Germany. He was diagnosed with pleurisy, an inflammation of the pleura, which is the moist, double-layered membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the rib cage.
Charlemagne became the King of the Franks in He then successfully led a series of campaigns throughout his reign to unite most of Western Europe under a sole emperor for the first time since the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
When King Louis died in , the Frankish Empire was divided into three separate states which would later become countries in Western Europe such as Germany and France.
Culture In many ways the Franks were at the heart of the culture of the Middle Ages. By Charlemagne was the undisputed ruler of Western Europe. His vast realm covered what are now France, Switzerland, Belgium, and The Netherlands. It included half of present-day Italy and Germany, part of Austria, and the Spanish March (“border”).