This is the only complete official translation we know of on the web, copied directly from an official Fascist government publication ofFascism Doctrine and Institutions, by Benito Mussolini.
Prior to the first irruption of what developed into French, and European, revolutionary unrest after the political shape of the Italian peninsula derived in large part from the influence of Papal diplomacy over the previous millennium where the Popes had tended to strongly support the existence of a number of small states in the north of the peninsula such that no strong power might presume to try to overshadow the papacy.
Such political decentralisation may have facilitated the emergence of a number of mercantile city states such as the Florence of the Medicis and the Milan of the Sforzas and to have allowed a scenario where ambitious men such as Cesare Borgia could attempt to establish themselves as rulers of territories won by statecraft and the sword.
The burgeoning wealth of these city states, despite much political turmoil, helped to fund that re-birth of classical learning and of artistic expression that is known as the Renaissance.
As time passed some of these mercantile states became reconstituted as Duchies and Grand Duchies. By the mid eighteenth century the north of the Italian peninsula featured a number of such dynastic states together with mercantile republics such as Genoa and Venice.
The former Duchy of Savoy meanwhile, originally based on limited territories north of the Alps, had expanded to also include Nice, Piedmont an extensive territory in the north-east of the Italian peninsula and the island of Sardinia and was known by its senior title as the Kingdom of Sardinia.
In the settlements to the Napoleonic Wars statesmen, in their efforts to restore political stability to Europe, reconstituted most of the Duchies and Grand Duchies often under rulers drawn from junior branches of the Habsburg dynasty or otherwise under Habsburg Austrian tutelage.
Habsburg Austria was awarded sovereignty over Lombardy and over the former Venetian Republic whilst the Republic of Genoa was similarly entrusted to the House of Savoy. The territories of the church that straddled the central portion of the peninsula were again placed under Papal sovereignty whilst to the south the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Sicily and Naples was restored to a junior branch of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, later famous as an Italian patriotic leader, recorded his introduction to the concept of "Italia" as having taken place during a voyage to Constantinople in Mazzini an essay on the duties of man the course of this voyage he overheard an argument.
A young man had been talking about a secret organisation he had joined - La Giovine Italia - or Young Italy. One of his companions commented dismissively, "What do you mean Italy?
The Italy of all the Italians. In response to this awakening to the idea of "Italia - Italy" he moved to shake the young man enthusiastically by the hand. The belief that "Italia" was a desirable possibility can be associated with the change in perspectives that many people, particularly from the more affluent artisan, middle and minor aristocratic classes, underwent after the American and French revolutions away from an acceptance of more purely dynastic patterns of sovereignty and towards aspiration towards "liberal" constitutional, and possibly even overtly republican or national notions of sovereignty.
The central figure in the origin of "Young Italy" was one Giuseppe Mazziniwho in in Genoa had witnessed the distress of the "refugees of Italy" who were in the process of fleeing into exile after their failure of their revolutionary efforts at winning reform and, moved by their example, had chosen to devote his life to the cause of Italian independence and unity.
In he was initiated into Carbonari movement and was himself forced into exile in for revolutionary activity. In exile in the French seaport city of Marseilles, then something of a revolutionary hotbed, he advocated subversive activity "even when it ended in defeat" as a method of developing general "political consciousness.
He hoped for a new democratic and republican Italy that would lead other subject peoples to freedom and liberty and for a new Europe, controlled by the people and not by sovereigns, that would replace the old order.
It means association, a new philosophy of life, a divine Ideal that shall move the world, the only means of regeneration vouchsafed to the human race. In February he was active as a propagandist for Young Italy whilst employed as a sailor in the royal Piedmontese-Sardinian navy, his subversive activities were reported to the authorities and, although he evaded capture by the authorities, was sentenced to death in absentia by a Genoese court.
He subsequently spent more than twelve years in exile mostly in South America. Camillo Benso Cavour was born at Turin on the 1st of August into the old Piedmontese feudal aristocracy. Being a younger son of a noble family social tradition steered him into the army such that he entered the military academy at Turin at the age of ten.
On leaving the college at the age of sixteen - first of his class - he received a commission in the engineers. He spent the next five years in the army but he spent his leisure hours in study, especially of the English language. During these years he developed strongly marked Liberal tendencies and an uncompromising dislike for absolutism and clericalism.
After the accession to the Sardinian throne of Charles Albert, whom he always distrusted, he felt that his position in the army was intolerable and resigned his commission His views were strengthened by his studies of the British constitution, of which he was known to be a great admirer such that he was even nicknamed - " Milord Camillo " During these times the Austrian statesman Metternich was aware of the implicit challenge posed to the settlements of by those who supported the the formation of "Italy".
In letter of April to the Austrian ambassador to France he wrote: He successfully pressed King Charles Albert of Sardinia to grant a constitution to his people [to form a constitutional monarchy]; and in to battle against Austria as an holder of power in the Italian peninsula.
The failure of this military action prompted the king to abdicate in favour of his son, Victor Emmanuel. Cavour became a member of parliament briefly from - Subsequently, he became minister of agriculture, industry and commerce infinance minister inand premier or prime minister in As Prime Minister Cavour sponsored policies that promoted economic development, allowed some liberalisation in politics, and countenanced reforms that, in ways, compromised the position of the Church.
Piedmont-Sardinia had already in abolished the ecclesiastical courts and introduced civil marriage - policies which had met with the dire protests of Pope Pius IX. Cavour hoped to secure the annexation of territories in the north of the Italian peninsula to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
He regarded the conservatism and power of Tsarist Russia as being a potent limitation on almost any popularly inspired alteration in frontiers anywhere in Europe. The outbreak of the Crimean War between France and Britain on one side and Russia on the other meant that a Sardinian interest was also at stake as a reverse for the Tsar would leave him less able to limit such popularly inspired changes in frontiers.Operation Mercury - Airmen in the Battle of Crete, M.G.
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Chapter Three. The Jewish Question. To illustrate the history of the Jewish people from its earliest beginnings down through the ages to the present day, as seen and depicted by the Jewish mind itself, we give the following account from the Chicago Tribune, July 4, + free ebooks online.
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Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. First Published at tranceformingnlp.com on Aug. 5th, [Part Two Here]. A Metaprogrammer at the Door of Chapel Perilous.
In the literature that concerns the Illuminati relentless speculation abounds. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D. Browse the Encyclopedia by clicking on any of the letters below. A | B | C | D | E | F. Italian Unification essay.
The role of Cavour and Garibaldi in the Making of Italy. The roman question. German unification Bismarck compare contrast.