Copies files and directory trees. ON Applies appended directories to file searches and application execution.
Kernel The Kernel module is included by class Objectso its methods are available in every Ruby object. The Kernel instance methods are documented in class Object while the module methods are documented here.
These methods are called without a receiver and thus can be called in functional form: Returns an empty Hash when arg is nil or .
Numeric types are converted directly with floating point numbers being truncated. If arg is a String, when base is omitted or equals zero, radix indicators 0, 0b, and 0x are honored.
In any case, strings should be strictly conformed to numeric representation. Passing nil raises a TypeError. If called outside of a method, it returns nil. It means symlinks in the path is resolved.
The return value equals to File. If multiple handlers are registered, they are executed in reverse order of registration. This object can be used when calling eval to execute the evaluated command in this environment. See also the description of class Binding.
You need to require 'continuation' before using this method. The value returned by the callcc is the value of the block, or the value passed to cont. See class Continuation for more details.
Also see throw for an alternative mechanism for unwinding a call stack. The optional start parameter determines the number of initial stack entries to omit from the top of the stack. A second optional length parameter can be used to limit how many entries are returned from the stack. Returns nil if start is greater than the size of current execution stack.
Optionally you can pass a range, which will return an array containing the entries within the specified range.
Location for more information. If throw is not called, the block executes normally, and catch returns the value of the last expression evaluated.
When found, the block stops executing and returns val or nil if no second argument was given to throw. This object can then be used as the argument to throw, and will match the correct catch block. If binding is given, which must be a Binding object, the evaluation is performed in its context.
If the optional filename and lineno parameters are present, they will be used when reporting syntax errors. If the string from the first form exec "command" follows these simple rules: Note that this behavior is observable by pid obtained return value of spawn and IO pid for IO.The Kernel module is included by class Object, so its methods are available in every Ruby object..
The Kernel instance methods are documented in class Object while the module methods are documented here. These methods are called without a receiver and thus can be called in functional form. 3 Basic Shell Features. Bash is an acronym for ‘Bourne-Again SHell’.The Bourne shell is the traditional Unix shell originally written by Stephen Bourne.
All of the Bourne shell builtin commands are available in Bash, The rules for evaluation and quoting are taken from the POSIX specification for the ‘standard’ Unix shell.. This chapter briefly summarizes the shell’s ‘building.
There are two ways of getting input into a script: via environment variables, and via option flags/parameters. As a rule of thumb, use environment variables for values which do not affect the behaviour of your script, and use script parameters for values which will trigger different flows in your script.
Using newlines in sed scripts. Occasionally one wishes to use a new line character in a sed script. Well, this has some subtle issues here. If one wants to search for a new line, one has to use "\n.". Explains how to swap two variables values using a shell script under UNIX / Linux.
Related Shell Scripts: Your support makes a big difference: I have a small favor to ask. More people are reading the nixCraft. Many of you block advertising which is your right, and advertising revenues are not sufficient to cover my operating costs. So you. Set the drawing transformation matrix for combined rotating and scaling.
This option sets a transformation matrix, for use by subsequent -draw or -transform options.. The matrix entries are entered as comma-separated numeric values either in quotes or without spaces.